Alaska Justice Forum 28(2–3), Summer/Fall 2011

The Summer/Fall 2011 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum features articles on immigration in Alaska, a pilot project for Anchorage probation violators, Alaska's five-year plan for offender reentry, and the impact of Village Public Safety Officers (VPSOs) in violence against women cases.

"Immigrants in Alaska-Authorized and Unauthorized" by Antonia Moras

The immigration of most foreign-born residents of Alaska has occurred legally under established laws and regulations.  However, the picture of immigration in Alaska — both authorized and unauthorized — differs in some details from the rest of the country as a whole.  According to census figures based on an average over the 5-year period of 2005–2009, immigrants from Asian countries formed a greater proportion of the foreign-born population than they did in the U.S. overall.  Over one-half of immigrants to Alaska came from Asia.  In the country as whole, immigrants from the Americas constitute over 55 percent of the foreign-born, with Mexico being by far the most common country of origin.  The article also discusses the increase in and estimated number of unauthorized immigrants in the U.S. and Alaska, and place of birth of and labor force participation of unauthorized immigrants. Includes notes on data sources and a bibliography of articles on immigration and noncitizens that have appeared in the Alaska Justice Forum.

"Enforcement of Immigration Laws" by Antonia Moras

Although there has been increasing involvement by state and local law enforcement, and more politicization of immigration issues at the state and local level, the federal government still has primary responsibility for enforcement of the nation's immigration laws. Despite relatively few cases, the adjudication of immigration cases in Alaska has slowed dramatically over the last decade, as it has elsewhere. This article also examines immigrant detention Alaska, immigration court proceedings, and the lengthy time for an immigration proceeding, and the enormous backlog of cases.

"PACE: A Pilot Project for Probation Violators in Anchorage"

Probation Accountability and Certain Enforcement (PACE), based on the Hawaii Court HOPE model, is a pilot project introduced in the Anchorage Superior Court in July 2010. This article presents findings and recommendations from a recent Alaska Judicial Council evaluation of the project, which seeks to deal with probation violations quickly with immediate imposition of a sanction.

"Alaska's Five-Year Prisoner Reentry Strategic Plan, 2011–2016"

The Five-year Prisoner Reentry Strategic Plan, 2011-2016, released this year by the Alaska Prisoner Reentry Task Force, presents a comprehensive overview of the issues surrounding successful prisoner reentry in Alaska, and makes recommendations for implementation of the plan. Includes a bibliography of resources on prisoner reentry and justice reinvestment.

"A Brief Look at VPSOs and Violence Against Women Cases"

This article looks at a study of sexual assault (SA) and sexual assault of a minor (SAM) cases reported to Alaska State Troopers in 2003 and 2004 when the first responder was a local paraprofessional police officer- a Village Public Safety Officer (VPSO), Village Police Officer (VPO), or Tribal Police Officer (TPO). The probability of a case being referred to the Alaska Department of Law, of being accepted for prosecution, and of resulting in a conviction was greater in most types of SA and SAM cases reported to the Alaska State Troopers when paraprofessional police officers were involved as first responders. Past studies have also demonstrated the positive impact of paraprofessional police in rural Alaska. A brief description of the VPSO program and current VPSO staffing is given. Includes a bibliography of articles on Village Public Safety Officers (VPSOs) and paraprofessional police that have appeared in the Alaska Justice Forum and elsewhere.

"U.S. State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies Census 2008" by Bureau of Justice Statistics

Over 1.1 millions persons were employed full-time by state and local law enforcement in the U.S. in 2008, according to the most recent census of state and local law enforcement agencies from the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Of that number, 765,000 were sworn personnel - defined as those with general arrest powers. In 2008, Alaska had 1,298 sworn personnel in 50 state and local law enforcement agencies, including 274 sworn officers of the Alaska State Troopers.

"Faculty Notes"

Marny Rivera, Justice Center faculty member, has been awarded tenure and been promoted to Associate Professor.

"Recent Justice Center Faculty Publications"

A bibliography of recent publications by Justice Center faculty.