Academic Integrity

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Academic integrity is a basic principle, which requires that students take credit only for ideas and efforts that are their own. Cheating, plagiarism, and other forms of academic dishonesty are often defined as the submission of materials in assignments, exams, or other academic work that is based on sources that are prohibited by the faculty member or in ways that do not properly cite where a student's ideas and efforts came from. Academic dishonesty also includes instances in which students collaborate on assignments, labs, or any other academic work which is intended to be independent. Academic dishonesty is further defined in the Student Code of Conduct.

A late evening creek covered in snow flows under the Student Union spine walkway.

Student Code of Conduct #1

Cheating, Plagiarism, or Other Forms of Academic Dishonesty:

  • presenting as their own the ideas or works of others without proper citation of sources;
  • utilizing devices not authorized by the faculty member;
  • using sources (including but not limited to text, images, computer code, and audio/video files) not authorized by the faculty member;
  • providing assistance without the faculty member's permission to another student, or receiving assistance not authorized by the faculty member from anyone (with or without their knowledge);
  • submitting work done for academic credit in previous classes, without the knowledge and advance permission of the current faculty member;
  • acting as a substitute or utilizing a substitute;
  • deceiving faculty members or other representatives of the university to affect a grade or to gain admission to a program or course;
  • fabricating or misrepresenting data;
  • possessing, buying, selling, obtaining, or using a copy of any material intended to be used as an instrument of assessment in advance of its administration;
  • altering grade records of their own or another student's work;
  • offering a monetary payment or other remuneration in exchange for a grade; or 
  • violating the ethical guidelines or professional standards of a given program.

In addition to any adverse academic action, which may result from engaging in academically dishonest behavior, the University specifically reserves the right to address and sanction the conduct involved through the Student Conduct Review Procedures outlined on this website in the Student Conduct section. Academic actions are reviewable under the Academic Dispute Resolution Procedure.

  • Reporting Procedure

    Suspicion of Academic Dishonesty

    The concerning party, whether it be an instructor, staff member, or a fellow student, reports the incident to the Dean of Students Office using the online reporting form. All instructors are required to report all instances of suspected academic dishonesty to the Dean of Students Office. An academic penalty or sanction (i.e., required re-do of an assignment, automatic 0 on an assignment or failure in the course) may only be imposed after the successful conclusion of the Formal Notation Process or after a finding of "responsible" is determined through Student Conduct Process. An academic penalty or sanction (i.e., required re-do of an assignment, automatic failure on assignment or course, etc.) may only be imposed after the successful conclusion of the Formal Notation Process or after a finding of “responsible” through the Student Conduct Process.  

    A student conduct administrator in the Dean of Students Office will review the report and notify the reporting party that the report was received. In some instances, the student conduct administrator may have follow-up questions or ask for more information.

    The student conduct administrator (with input from the instructor) will determine whether the suspected academic dishonesty should be addressed through the formal notation process or through the formal student conduct process. Factors that assist in making this decision may include: the student's history with academic dishonesty, the severity of the alleged dishonesty, and the student's education level. In addition, a student’s disability may also factor into this decision making process. 

    Formal Notation Process

    This process allows for the student and instructor to engage in an educational and developmental conversation about the issue. A student conduct administrator from the Dean of Students Office may also attend to facilitate the conversation, to ensure students are aware of their rights and responsibilities, and to ensure that those rights are maintained. If this process ensues, and if the student openly admits to and agrees with the dishonesty that may have occurred, then a Statement of Responsibility form is signed by the instructor, student, and student conduct administrator. The form describes the academic dishonesty and the academic penalty (if the instructor plans to issue one) that will occur as a result of the incident. If, during this meeting, the student does not admit nor agree to the suspected dishonesty, or if the student desires to have the allegations against them heard through the formal student conduct process, then the meeting between the student, faculty member, and student conduct administrator is adjourned and the incident is resolved through the formal student conduct process.

    Formal Student Conduct Process

    This process begins with the preliminary investigation in which the case will either be dismissed or moved forward for full investigation and review. Instructors must withhold grading of the assignment in question and/or issuing any academic penalty (i.e. giving a 0 on the assignment, requiring a re-do, etc.) until the conclusion of the student conduct process. If there is sufficient information to support the accusation, the student is notified of the allegations and invited to participate in a meeting to review the allegations to share their perspective. Once the student conduct process concludes and a finding is made, the student conduct administrator will notify the faculty member so they may issue an academic penalty. Academic penalties are only permitted when there is a finding of "responsible." More information on the student code of conduct process can be found in the Student Code of Conduct brochure in the Student Handbook.

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  • Disciplinary Sanctions

    The sanctioning system employed by the Dean of Students Office is based on a spectrum of possibilities, from a Warning through Expulsion from the University of Alaska system. The spectrum approach allows the flexibility to address cases based on specific circumstances, severity of the behavior, and repeated violations.

    Sanctions are not mutually exclusive, and can be combined into a series of sanctions that might be more effective in modifying the student’s behavior in the future. For example, discretionary sanctions might be given as an educative complement to a punitive sanction of a Warning or Disciplinary Probation.

    Disciplinary sanctions are only imposed when the Dean of Students Office has reached a conclusion of “Responsible.” Note that the assignment of grades in relation to a finding of responsible, which is considered an academic penalty, is outside the purview of the Dean of Students Office and rests solely with the Instructor of Record. However, an instructor may only impose an academic penalty in cases in which a student is found “responsible.”

    Warning – A notice that a student has violated UAA’s Student Code of Conduct, which can be used as evidence of previous offenses in future cases. Warnings are typically limited to cases where academic misconduct appears to be unintentional or the severity of the offense is minor. If a student receives a warning, the Dean of Students Office does not disclose a disciplinary record about a student to a third party, i.e., to a medical school.

    Reflective Essay – A student may be required to write an essay reflecting on the incident that led to the allegation(s) of misconduct, including steps the student plans to take to remedy or prevent future instances of misconduct.

    Academic Integrity Tutorial – The student would be required to take the Academic Integrity Tutorial and successfully pass the final quiz under the supervision of a designated representative of the Dean of Students Office.

    Disciplinary Probation – A written warning that includes the probability of more severe disciplinary sanctions, including suspension or expulsion, if the student is found responsible for violating UAA’s Student Code of Conduct for the specified probationary period. If a student is placed on disciplinary probation, the Dean of Students Office will disclose the disciplinary record of a student to a third party after receiving a proper release of information, i.e., to a medical school.

    Discretionary Sanctions – Discretionary sanctions are designed primarily to educate the students about the consequences and repercussions for having a lack of academic integrity. The sanctions may include (but are not limited to) essays, written apologies, presentations, mentoring meetings, counseling, educational classes, community service work, or other uncompensated labor. They should be assigned only in conjunction with other sanctions.

    Suspension – The separation of the student from the University of Alaska for a specified period of time. The student may not participate in University of Alaska events or be present on University of Alaska property for a specified period of time.

    Expulsion – The permanent separation of a student from the University of Alaska indefinitely. The student may not participate in University of Alaska events or be present on University of Alaska property.

  • Sanction Guidelines - First Offense

    The University of Alaska Anchorage believes that academic integrity violations are best addressed through procedures designed to educate students. However, the necessity of maintaining the quality of education and of protecting the reputation of the University and its degrees requires the possibility of punitive sanctions to reinforce educative approaches and to arrest immediate or consistent issues. The guidelines included here are intended to clarify how the University can best achieve these goals.

    The sanctioning guidelines that follow are designed to guide the Dean of Students Office in the imposition of sanctioning for academic misconduct and to provide a transparent description of consequences for both students and faculty. The Dean of Students Office reserves the right to depart from these guidelines in cases involving aggravating or mitigating circumstances, under-prepared students, graduate students, etc. Cases may exist where students need to be assigned greater sanctions due to their prior disciplinary record. Conversely, cases may occur where lesser sanctions may be appropriate. The Dean of Students Office intends to follow the sanctioning guidelines, making exceptions that are in the best interest of the student.

    Sanction Guidelines for First Offense

    BOR Policy Reference   Nature of Violation
    [Used on Reporting Form]
     Minimum Imposed Sanction

    Maximum Sanction
    Up To and Including 
     1 Presenting as their own the ideas or works of others without proper citation of sources
    [PLAGIARIZING]
    Warning AND Reflective Essay 1 Year Suspension
     2 Utilizing devices not authorized by the faculty member 
    [CHEATING]
    Warning AND Reflective Essay 2 Years Disciplinary Probation
     3 Using sources (including but not limited to text, images, computer code, and audio/video files) not authorized by the faculty member
    [CHEATING]
    Warning AND Reflective Essay 2 Years Disciplinary Probation
     4 Providing assistance without the faculty member's permission to another student, or receiving assistance not authorized by the faculty member from anyone (with or without their knowledge)
    [AIDING & ABETTING]
    Warning AND Reflective Essay 1 Year Disciplinary Probation
     5 Submitting work done for academic credit in previous classes, without the knowledge and advance permission of the current faculty member
    [CHEATING]
    Warning AND Reflective Essay 1 Year Disciplinary Probation
     6 Acting as a substitute or utilizing a substitute
    [AIDING & ABETTING]
    2 Years Disciplinary Probation AND Reflective Essay 1 Year Suspension
     7 Deceiving faculty members or other representatives of the university to affect a grade or to gain admission to a program or course                                                                                             [FALSIFYING] 1 Year Disciplinary Probation AND Reflective Essay 1 Year Suspension
     8 Fabricating or misrepresenting data
    [FALSIFYING]
    2 Years Disciplinary Probation AND Reflective Essay 1 Year Suspension
     9 Possessing, buying, selling, obtaining, or using a copy of any material intended to be used as an instrument of assessment in advance of its administration
    [CHEATING]
    Warning AND Reflective Essay 1 Year Suspension
     10 Altering grade records of their own or another student's work
    [FALSIFYING]
    2 Years Disciplinary Probation AND Reflective Essay 1 Year Suspension
     11 Offering a monetary payment or other remuneration in exchange for a grade
    [BRIBING]
    2 Years Disciplinary Probation AND Reflective Essay 1 Year Suspension

     12 Violating the ethical guidelines or professional standards of a given program
    [VIOLATING PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS]
    1 Year Disciplinary Probation AND Reflective Essay 1 Year Suspension

    Definition of Terms

    BOR Policy Reference: Policy Reference given in R09.02.020.

    Nature of Violation: Description of the nature of the violation reported to the Dean of Students Office. The descriptions are guidelines and are NOT exhaustive; in all cases, the BOR Policies are the basis of classification of violations. The one-word description in square brackets refers to the violations listed on the proposed Student Code of Conduct Complaint Form.

    Minimum Sanction: This is the minimum sanction that would be imposed by the Dean of Students Office if a student were found Responsible of violating the Student Code of Conduct. In certain cases, multiple minimum sanctions ("Warning AND Reflective Essay") may be imposed.

    Maximum Sanction: This is the maximum sanction that could be assigned by the Dean of Students Office. This sanction is "Up To and Including," meaning that any and all sanctions between the Minimum and the Maximum could be applied to a specific case depending on the severity and circumstances, as well as if the student had been found Responsible for similar violations in the past.

  • Sanction Guidelines - Repeat Offenses

    The Dean of Students Office will take the following factors into consideration when determining sanctions for repeat offenses:

    • After the first incident(s) of academic misconduct, was the student assigned discretionary sanctions designed to educate the student?
    • Did this incident occur before or after the Dean of Students Office addressed the first case of academic misconduct?
    • Are the new allegations less severe, the same level, or more severe than prior offenses?
    • Is the nature of this offense the same as prior offenses?
    • What is the totality of the student’s disciplinary record?
    • Are there any mitigating circumstances that should be taken into consideration?

    If a student has received a warning as a prior sanction, the minimum sanction imposed for a repeat offense is one-year disciplinary probation.

    If a student has been placed on disciplinary probation as a past sanction but the disciplinary probation period has expired, the minimum sanction imposed for a repeat offense is two-years disciplinary probation.

    If a student is currently on disciplinary probation for academic misconduct, if the student has a history of academic dishonesty, or if the alleged academic misconduct is significantly egregious or serious, suspension or expulsion may be warranted. In these instances, the Assistant Dean of Students and Director of Student Conduct & Ethical Development will consult with the Dean of Students before moving forward.

    If a student has been suspended in the past for academic misconduct, the recommended sanction imposed for a repeat offense is expulsion.

  • Possible Academic Penalties or Sanctions

    Cheating, plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty will first go through the student conduct process and then, if a violation of the Student Code of Conduct is found, an instructor may impose an academic penalty or sanction in addition to disciplinary sanctions. An academic penalty may not be imposed prior to, or without, the conclusion of the formal notation or student conduct process.

  • Faculty Guide to Student Academic Integrity

    A Faculty Guide to Student Academic Integrity

    Faculty members often inquire as to how they can cultivate academic integrity and prevent dishonesty from occurring. This inquiry is valuable considering that more than two-thirds of college students attending four year institutions report that they have cheated (Gallant & Drinan, 2006, p. 62; McCabe, Trevino, & Butterfield, 2012, p. 35-71). This guide provides assistance for preventing, identifying, and addressing academic dishonesty within the many environments that faculty interact with students.

    It must be recognized that a foundational underpinning in higher education is academic integrity and that faculty members play a critical role in building and fostering a community of students—tomorrow’s leaders— that are both rigorous and ethical in their academic and professional pursuits (Gallant & Drinan, 2008). However, academic integrity is also complex, both in its use as an indicator of a future generation’s ethical tendencies as well as a reflection of the mores of today’s fast-changing society. This complexity makes the reporting of and the response to issues of academic dishonesty extremely important. As such, UAA faculty are responsible, and required, to report all cases of suspected academic dishonesty to the Dean of Students Office. This requirement not only allows for consistent reporting, but also:

    • The identification of repeat offenders;
    • Institutional and department values and reputations to be upheld;
    • Faculty guidance and support;
    • Fair and independent investigations to occur; and
    • When warranted, impartial consideration and implementation of institutional sanctions.

    Each of these elements, especially in concert with one another, reduces and deters instances of academic misconduct and its recidivism rates (McCabe, Trevino, & Butterfield, 2012; Whitley & Keith-Spiegel, 2001).

    Examples of Academic Dishonesty

    Disciplinary action may be initiated by the university and disciplinary sanctions imposed against any student or student organization found responsible for committing, attempting to commit, or intentionally assisting in the commission of any of the following categories of conduct prohibited by the Code. The examples provided in this section constituting forms of conduct prohibited by the Code are not intended to define conduct in exhaustive terms, but rather to set forth examples to serve as guidelines for acceptable and unacceptable behavior.

    Cheating, Plagiarism, or Other Forms of Academic Dishonesty

    Academic dishonesty applies to examinations, assignments, laboratory reports, fieldwork, practicums, creative projects, or other academic activities.

    1. presenting as their own the ideas or works of others without proper citation of sources;
    2. utilizing devices not authorized by the faculty member;
    3. using sources (including but not limited to text, images, computer code, and audio/video files) not authorized by the faculty member;
    4. providing assistance without the faculty member's permission to another student, or receiving assistance not authorized by the faculty member from anyone (with or without their knowledge)
    5. submitting work done for academic credit in previous classes, without the knowledge and advance permission of the current faculty member;
    6. acting as a substitute or utilizing a substitute;
    7. deceiving faculty members or other representative of the university to affect a grade or to gain admission to a program or course;
    8. fabricating or misrepresenting data;
    9. possessing, buying, selling, obtaining, or using a copy of any material intended to be used as an instrument of assessment in advance of its administration;
    10. altering grade records of their own or another student's work;
    11. offering a monetary payment or other remuneration in exchange for a grade; or
    12. violating the ethical guidelines or professional standards of a given program.

    How to Report Academic Dishonesty

    What to include in a report to the Dean of Students Office:

    1. Student(s) involved in the incident
      Include name and SID
    2. Course information
      Include course number and prefix
    3. Description of the academic dishonesty
      Include the date of the incident and any evidence (assignments, exams, emails, SafeAssign reports, etc.)

    Once a report is received, a member of the Dean of Students Office will get in touch with you to provide consultation.

    Reports can be made online at: https://goo.gl/9W4gDc

    You may also get in touch directly with Megan Wilbur, Student Conduct & Ethical Development Coordinator, at 907-786-1277 or via email at mmkolendo@alaska.edu if you have any questions.

    Common Violations and Strategies for Prevention

    While these lists provide tips and strategies for preventing common areas of academic dishonesty, remember that all instances of suspected academic dishonesty must be reported to the Dean of Students Office and that instructors may not impose an academic penalty in response to academic dishonesty until after specific direction from the Dean of Students Office.

    Cheating

    • Include a statement in your syllabus
    • Discuss what constitutes cheating in the context of individual tests, quizzes, exams, and other assignments
    • Incorporate discussions of ethics into course content
    • Vary questions and assignments between sections and semesters
    • Create an environment that discourages cheating (spread out chairs, limit personal items, check photo IDs, etc.)
    • Actively monitor tests
    • Warn students that learning centers and proctors employ multiple electronic monitoring methods
    • Provide training and support for tutors, TAs, and RAs

    Plagiarizing

    • Include a statement in your syllabus
    • Discuss plagiarism in the context of individual assignments
    • Discuss and model appropriate citation practices for your discipline
    • Get to know your students styles (e.g., computer code, writing, etc.)
    • Consider including the AI Tutorial in your curriculum
    • Consider using plagiarism detection tools like SafeAssign
    • Vary assignments so they are more difficult to plagiarize
    • Provide training and support for tutors, TAs, and RAs

    Fabricating and Falsifying

    • Include a statement in your syllabus
    • Verify excuses (doctor’s notes, etc.)
    • Record grades in more than one place
    • Mark missing responses as blanks
    • Ask students to describe or document processes for generating data
    • Compare student-generated data with raw data (e.g., compare official hospital chart to student’s chart; compare transcript to original audio recording)
    • Be present during data collection, if possible
    • Have students work in rotating groups
    • Vary assignments from semester to semester
    • Provide training and support for tutors, TAs, and RAs

    Aiding and Abetting

    • Include a statement in your syllabus
    • Clarify policies and expectations about out-of-class collaboration and study groups (including sharing work both physically and through social media)
    • Check file properties for electronic submissions
    • Use multiple versions of exams and/or vary the exam by section
    • Require students to show work, document contributions to collaborative work, and/or turn in drafts
    • Provide training and support for tutors, TAs, and RAs
    • Assign seating during exams
    • Get to know your students’ styles (e.g., computer code, writing, etc.)
    • Use SafeAssign to identify papers written by other students
    • Check IDs or get to know your students’ names

    Violating Professional Standards

    • Include a statement in your syllabus
    • Provide training and support for tutors, TAs, and RAs
    • Expose students to professional codes (formal or informal) early and often
    • Educate students about departmental or program standards and expectations
    • Address ethics in the curriculum
    • For any discipline that includes access to sensitive or protected records, have students complete training and certification (FERPA & HIPAA)
    • For any discipline that includes research on human or animal subjects, have students complete training and certification (IRB & IACUC)

    Frequently Asked Questions

    Q: What do I do if I suspect academic dishonesty?

    All suspected cases of academic dishonesty must be reported to the Dean of Students Office. As the instructor of record, you will be provided an in-depth consultation that will discuss the issue at hand, including how to inform the alleged student, the timeline of the case, how to continue grading/assessing a student’s work, and any other questions you may have. The consultation will also discuss and review the process as a whole and next-steps:

    • Pedagogical Response: Sometimes, after consultation, the consulting student conduct administrator and faculty member will conclude that the initially suspected academic dishonesty is not academic dishonesty at all and that it may, for example, be a situation in which the student is inexperienced in the discourse of the discipline in which they are writing and that the learning outcomes or the rubric for the assignment allows for the faculty member to address the issue within the already developed confines of that assignment. In this type of situation, the student conduct administrator can provide assistance in having a conversation with the student about the concern. However, in this situation, the faculty may not impose any type of academic penalty.
    • Formal Notation Process: One outcome of the consultation may be addressing the incident through the formal notation process. The formal notation process allows for the student and faculty member to engage in an educational and developmental conversation about the issue, of which a student conduct administrator from the Dean of Students Office may assist in facilitating. If this process ensues, then a Statement of Responsibility form is signed by the faculty member, student, and student conduct administrator. This form describes the academic dishonesty that occurred and the academic penalty (if there is one) that will occur as a result of the incident. This form also documents that the student understands both their rights and responsibilities as well as what formal notation means in terms of their disciplinary record.
    • Student Code of Conduct Process: Depending on previous issues with academic dishonesty, the student’s education level (e.g., Are they an undergraduate or graduate student? Are they a first-year freshman or nearing graduation?), and the severity of the dishonesty that occurred, the case may be referred to the formal student code of conduct process. The Dean of Students Office will conduct an impartial preliminary investigation and will either dismiss the case or move forward with a full investigation and review. You will most likely be asked follow-up questions regarding the incident and may be asked to provide additional information to assist in the investigation. Instructors must withhold grading of the assignment in question and/or issuing any academic penalty (e.g., giving a 0 on the assignment, require the student to re-do the assignment, etc.) until the conclusion of the student conduct process. The Dean of Students Office will notify you once the process concludes. This process is outlined in the flowchart within this guide.

    It is important to remember that while you are expected to report all instances of suspected academic dishonesty, you will also receive consultation each and every time. You are not expected to, nor should you, make these decisions on your own. The Dean of Students Office has individuals on their staff with expertise in academic integrity-related issues.

    Q: What is the faculty member’s role in the process once it has been reported to the Dean of Students Office?

    As a faculty member, you have a significant role in promoting a culture of academic integrity at UAA. When you report an incident of suspected academic dishonesty to the Dean of Students Office, you will be engaged in a dialogue and be provided consultation about next steps. Often, you will be asked follow-up questions or asked for additional information if an investigation ensues. You are welcome to engage in a conversation about the sanctions a student may or may not receive as a result of the student conduct process and the Dean of Students Office welcomes your input for consideration. Once the student conduct process is complete, you will receive a letter notifying you of the outcome and any sanctions the student may have received.

    Q: What if I am suspicious of academic dishonesty, but don’t have any proof?

    You can discuss the situation with one of the student conduct administrators in the Dean of Students Office. Often, an investigation is able to discover whether a student was academically dishonest regardless of proof that was not immediately apparent at the time of the initial suspicion.

    Q: I found an instance of academic dishonesty once the semester was over or after the student dropped the class. Should I still report what happened?

    Absolutely! It is important to report all cases of academic dishonesty. There are quite a few options with how to proceed with cases of academic dishonesty and you will be provided a consultation on next steps regardless of when you discover that academic dishonesty may have occurred.

    Q: What happens if the deadline for submitting final grades comes, but the case of academic dishonesty I reported is still being investigated?

    Because instructors must wait to issue an academic penalty (e.g., a 0 on the assignment, failure in the course, etc.) until the student conduct process concludes and the instructor is notified of a finding of responsibility, a grade of “Incomplete” must be entered for the student. Once the student conduct process concludes, instructors are notified of the outcome and can then issue a final grade and/or academic penalty (if appropriate). That being said, faculty should continue to collect and grade all other assignments and/or exams from the student as if there was no case being investigated.

    Q: How can I recognize academic dishonesty?

    It is everyone’s responsibility to know and understand academic integrity, to practice and model it in their work, and to create a culture of academic honesty throughout UAA. Instructors can familiarize themselves with the kinds of academic dishonesty that occur, as well as the specific types that may occur more frequently in one’s discipline and program. There are many strategies one can adopt to help recognize academic dishonesty such as being clear in one’s expectations surrounding independent work and collaboration, creating multiple methods of student assessment so discrepancies in student work is more clearly seen, and using SafeAssign.

    Q: How can I prevent academic dishonesty?

    We cannot prevent academic dishonesty all the time. However, there are ways you can make a difference. Including a statement about academic integrity in your syllabus is important, but it is also important to discuss ethics throughout the semester and to clearly explain expectations for each assignment. For example, clearly explaining what constitutes collaboration versus independent work for an assignment is important. Can students use material they turned in or used in a previous course and if so, under what conditions? How do you want students to cite their sources? How should they prepare and study for an exam in your class? Constructing variety in an exam and creating a physical classroom environment that makes cheating more difficult is also useful. In writing-intensive classes, providing opportunities for in-class writing assignments as well as creating assignments that require in-depth and unique responses and/or analysis is another strategy instructors can use to prevent academic dishonesty. Of course, most importantly, you can help students understand the important role they have in developing and maintaining a culture of academic integrity at UAA.

    References

    • Gallant, T. B. & Drinan P. (2006). Institutionalizing academic integrity: Administrator perceptions and institutional actions. NASPA Journal, 43(4), 61-81.
    • Gallant, T. B. & Drinan P. (2008). Toward a model of academic integrity institutionalization: Informing practice in postsecondary education. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 38(2), 25 - 43.
    • McCabe, D. L., Butterfield, K. D., & Trevino, L. K. (2012). Cheating in college: Why students do it and what educators can do about it. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins UP.
    • Whitley, B. E. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2001). Academic integrity as an institutional issue. Ethics & Behavior, 11(3), 325-342.