Model United Nations of Alaska Style Guide
- General Formatting
- All body text should be in 12 pt. Times New Roman font, black (RGB hex #000000).
- All line spacing should be 1.00 or 1.15, and should be consistent throughout each document, with no altered spacing before or after paragraph breaks.
- All text should be Full Justified (aligned to both sides).
- Top, bottom, left, and right page margins should each be 1 inch.
- Indentations should be 0.5 inches.
- Standard Latin abbreviations (such as e.g., i.e., etc.) should appear only in parentheticals. In body text, write out the phrase (such as exempli gratia, id est, et cetera).
- No sources need be cited within a document, though sources should be easily available upon request by MUN officials or participants.
- Abbreviations of organizations should be included in parentheses after the first usage of the full name, and used in place of the full name thereafter. Model United Nations may always be abbreviated MUN, but should only be used in explicit meta-reference to the simulation. References to the presiding organization within the simulation should be directed to the United Nations, which may always be abbreviated as UN except as part of writing out the full form of other organizations.
- The Oxford Comma should always be used after the penultimate item in lists of three or more articles.
- Split infinitives should be universally avoided.
- Dates should appear in the form [day number] [month name] [year number], as in “27 February 2020”.
- Amounts of money should always be recorded in United States Dollars, abbreviated USD (they should not be listed with the dollar sign “$”). USD should be normalized to the month within which the relevant conference is taking place.
- Italics may be used for emphasis, where absolutely necessary, and for references to complete works. Bolding and underlining should never be used except where directed. Incomplete works should be referenced in quotations.
- Active and passive voice are both acceptable, but active shall be preferred.
- Avoid figurative and poetic language where possible; interpretation shall generally assume literal intent.
- In absence of other specifications, revert to APA style.
- Slight inconsistencies may be tolerated, but significant and/or repeated errors may limit the opportunity for presentation of some documents at the discretion of MUN officials.
- Resolution Formatting
Each resolution contains three major sections: a title section to introduce the resolution, preambulatory clauses to build a case for why action is needed and what precedents exist, and operative clauses to state specific actions and beliefs adopted by the resolution. Notably, the title section and preambulatory clauses cannot be amended by later action once a resolution is submitted. The first letter of each full clause (but not subclause) should be capitalized. The only end punctuation in the resolution occurs as a period at the very end; each preambulatory clause ends in a comma followed by a blank line, and each operative clause in a semicolon. Resolutions should be roughly one to two pages, and at submission should generally not contain more than five operative clauses. Please see the attached Sample Resolution for examples of the following.
- Resolutions should be phrased in the third person.
Each resolution should begin with a title section, used for recordkeeping purposes and to introduce the main matter of the resolution. It should begin with a bolded reference to the committee (written out in its entirety throughout the title section, but abbreviated as desired whenever it appears elsewhere), followed by an open line and then the respective lists of sponsors and signatories. One or more blank lines may be allowed after the list of signatories to allow space for delegates to physically sign for their nation at the conference itself. Lastly, the bolded title of the resolution should appear, followed by a blank line, an address to the committee, and a final blank line before the preambulatory clauses begin. The title section takes the following form:
Resolution of the [Full Committee Name]
Sponsor(s): [Sponsor Nation Full Names]
Signatories: [Signatory Nation Names]
The [Full Committee Name],
[Begin preambulatory clauses here, indenting the first line of each]
Preambulatory clauses are used to establish exigency and to help the audience understand existing precedents as they relate to the resolution at hand, and is one of the key means of building a case for a resolution. These clauses are generally considered to be the defining measure of the “intent” of a resolution, and later amendments to the operative clauses can not take actions that would, in the view of the body and the chair, violate this intent. Preambulatory clauses often cite or quote existing policies, treaties, resolutions, or other documents, and may provide useful contextual information for resolutions on esoteric topics. Each preambulatory clause takes the following form:
[Italicized preambulatory phrase] [continuation of preambulatory clause],
- A preambulatory phrase is a present participle that is the predicate of the clause, and is generally more descriptive than prescriptive. Examples include: affirming, alarmed by, believing, desiring, having adopted, recognizing, et cetera.
Operative clauses are used to establish the actions that a resolution will take if passed. Such actions can include internal adjustments to the duties, procedures, and systems of a committee and/or its subcommittees within the limits of that committee, requests for aid from the international community, and specific operations for that committee to undertake. If a specific endeavor is described, it should generally include a rough time frame, a description of what is hoped to be accomplished with any funds and other resources used, and any significant implementation decisions (e.g. a proposal to build schools in Africa needs to say where and how many will be built, how long they will take to build, how much each is expected to cost, whether upkeep funds are provided, how many students each might support, where teachers might come from and how they will be paid, what educational resources might be included, any additional infrastructure provided such as road access, electricity, water pumps, etc.). If necessary, operative clauses request or confirm funding from the World Bank (WB) in the form of loans and other Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the form of grants. Such clauses may not violate the sovereignty of any nation unless they are passed through the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), and any resolution that attempts to take an action inside a sovereign nation’s borders without that nation being a Sponsor will be automatically sent to the UNSC upon passing in its original committee. Sponsorship may be withdrawn by a nation at any time, without requiring speaking time. Each operative clause takes the following form:
[Italicized operative phrase] [continuation of operative clause];
Some operative clauses may have subclauses. In such cases, the main clause and all non-final subclauses end in commas, with only the final subclause ending in a semicolon. A clause with one or more subclauses takes the following form:
[Italicized operative phrase] [continuation of operative clause],
[italicized operative phrase] [continuation of operative clause],
[italicized operative phrase] [continuation of operative clause];
- An operative phrase is a present participle that is the predicate of the clause, and is generally more prescriptive than descriptive. Examples include: approving, authorizing, condemning, encourages, endorses, proclaims, requests, et cetera.
- The final operative clause should end in a period instead of a semicolon.
- Position Paper Formatting
- Position papers may be phrased in the first or third person with respect to the publishing nation.
- Each position paper should contain a title section and a number of body paragraphs.
The entire title section, save only the final line, should be bolded, and begin with an identification of the position paper and the full nation name followed by a blank line. Then the conference topic may be listed, followed by another blank line and a list of all delegates from that nation, and another blank line. Lastly, an address to the United Nations General Assembly should be included with a final blank line before entering into the body paragraphs.
Position Paper of the [Nation Full Name]
Topic: “[Annual Conference Topic]”
Delegates: [Delegate 1] ([Delegate 1 Committee]), [Delegate 2] ([Delegate 2 Committee]), [continue as needed]
The United Nations General Assembly,
- The body paragraphs should begin with an introduction and end with a conclusion paragraph, each succinctly illustrating and drawing together the relevant nations attitudes and desires as viewed through the lens of the annual topic. In between, each delegate should write a single paragraph describing in greater detail their nation’s specific stance on the topic as it relates to their committee, with appropriate context and transitions.
- Each body paragraph should adhere to standard body text formatting, and begin with an indented first line.
- Position papers should be roughly two pages in length.